BAHASA PEMROGAMAN KOMPUTER

Sejarah Bahasa Pemrograman Komputer Sejak pertama komputer difference engine diciptakan oleh Charles Babbage pada tahun 1822, komputer membutuhkan sejumlah instruksi untuk melakukan suatu tugas tertentu. Instruksi-instruksi ini dikenal sebagai bahasa pemrograman. Bahasa komputer mulanya terdiri dari sejumlah langkah pengkabelan untuk membuat suatu program; hal ini dapat dipahami sebagai suatu rangkaian pengetikan kedalam komputer dan kemudian dijalankan. Pada awalnya, difference engine-nya Charles Babbage hanya dibuat untuk menjalankan tugas dengan menggunakan perpindahan gigi roda untuk menjalankan fungsi kalkukasi. Jadi, bentuk awal dari bahasa komputer adalah berupa gerakan secara mekanik, selanjutnya gerakan mekanik tersebut digantikan dengan sinyal listrik ketika pemerintah AS mengembangkan ENIAC pada tahun 1942, tetapi masih banyak mengadopsi prinsip-prinsip dasar dari Babbage’s engine yang mana diprogram dengan mengeset switch dan perkabelan pada seluruh sistem pada setiap “program” maupun kalkulasi. Tentu saja ini merupakan pekerjaan yang membosankan. Pada 1945, John Von Neumann yang bekerja pada Institute for Advanced Study mengemukakan dua konsep yang secara langsung mempengaruhi masa depan dari bahasa pemrograman komputer. Yang pertama dikenal sebagai “shared-program technique” (www.softlord.com). Pada teknik ini dinyatakan bahwa hardware komputer haruslah sederhana dan tidak perlu dilakukan pengkabelan dengan menggunakan tangan untuk setiap program. Sebagai gantinya, instruksi-instruksi yang lebih kompleks harus digunakan untuk mengendalikan perangkat keras yang lebih sederhana, hal ini memungkinkan komputer diprogram ulang dengan cepat. Konsep yang kedua yang juga sangat penting untuk pengembangan bahasa pemrograman. Von Neumann menyebutnya sebagai “conditional control transfer” (www.softlord.com). Ide ini berkembang menjadi bentuk subrutin, atau blok kode yang kecil yang dapat panggil berdasarkan aturan tertentu, dari pada suatu himpunan tunggal urutan kronologis yang harus dijalankan oleh komputer. Bagian kedua dari ide tersebut menyatakan bahwa kode komputer harus dapat bercabang berdasarkan pernyataan logika seperti IF (ekspresi) THEN, dan perulangan seperti FOR statement. “Conditional control transfer” mengembangkan ide adanya “libraries,” yang mana merupakan blok kode yang dapat digunakan berulang kali. Pada 1949, setelah beberapa tahun Von Neumann bekerja, bahasa Short Code dilahirkan (www.byte.com), yang merupakan bahasa komputer yang pertama untuk peralatan elektronik yang membutuhkan programmer untuk mengubah perintah kedalam 0 dan 1 dengan tangan. Pada 1957, bahasa khusus yang pertama muncul dalam bentuk FORTRAN yang merupakan singkatan dari sistem FORmula TRANslating. Bahasa ini dirancang pada IBM untuk perhitungan scientific. Komponen-komponennya sangat sederhana, dan menyediakan bagi programmer akses tingkat rendah kedalam komputer. Sampai saat ini, bahasa ini terbatas pada hanya terdiri dari perintah IF, DO, dan GOTO, tetapi pada waktu itu, perintah-perintah ini merupakan lompatan besar kearah depan. Type data dasar yang digunakan sampai sekarang ini dimulai dari FORTRAN, hal ini meliputi variabel logika (TRUE atau FALSE), dan bilangan integer, real, serta double-precision. FORTRAN sangat baik dalam menangani angka-angka, tetapi tidak terlalu baik untuk menangani proses input dan output, yang mana merupakan hal yang penting pada komputasi bisnis. Komputasi bisnis mulai tinggal landas pada 1959, dengan dikembangkannya COBOL, yang dirancang dari awal sebagai bahasa untuk para pebisnis. Type data yang ada hanya berupa number dan text string. Hal tersebut juga memungkinkan pengelompokan menjadi array dan record, sehingga data di telusuri dan diorganisasikan dengan lebih baik. Sesuatu hal yang menarik untuk dicatat bahwa suatu program COBOL dibuat menyerupai suatu essay, dengan empat atau lima bagian utama yang membentuk keseluruhan yang tertata dengan baik. Perintah-perintah COBOL sangat menyerupai tata bahasa English, sehingga membuatnya agak mudah dipelajari. Semua ciri-ciri ini dikembangkan agar mudah dipelajari dan mudah diterapkan pada dunia bisnis. Pada 1958, John McCarthy di MIT membuat bahasa LISt Processing (atau LISP), yang dirancang untuk riset Artificial Intelligence (AI). Karena dirancang untuk fungsi spesialisasi yang tinggi, maka tata cara penulisannya jaring kelihatan sebelum ataupun sesudahnya. Sesuatu perbedaan yang paling nyata dari bahasa ini dengan bahasa lain adalah dasar dan type satu-satunya adalah list, yang ditandai dengan suatu urutan item yang dicakup dengan tanda kurung. Program LISP sendirinya dibuat sebagai suatu himpunan dari list, sehingga LISP memiliki kemampuan yang khusus untuk memodifikasi dirinya, dan juga dapat berkembang sendiri. Tata cara penulisan LISP dikenal sebagai “Cambridge Polish,” sebagaimana dia sangat berbeda dari logika Boolean (Wexelblat, 177) : x V y – Cambridge Polish, what was used to describe the LISP program OR(x,y) – parenthesized prefix notation, what was used in the LISP program x OR y – standard Boolean logic LISP masih digunakan sampai sekarang karena spesialiasi yang tinggi dari sifat abstraknya. Bahasa Algol dibuat oleh suatu komite untuk pemakaian scientific pada tahun 1958. Kontribusi utamanya adalah merupakan akar dari tiga bahasa selanjutnya yaitu Pascal, C, C++, dan Java. Dia juga merupakan bahasa pertama dengan suatu tata bahasa formal, yang dikenal sebagai Backus-Naar Form atau BNF (McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 454). Pada Algol telah diterapkan konsep-konsep baru, seperti rekursif pada function, bahasa berikutnya Algol 68, menjadi bahasa yang membosankan dan sulit digunakan (www.byte.com). Hal ini mengarah kepada adopsi terhadap bahasa yang lebih kecil dan kompak seperti Pascal. Pascal dimulai pada tahun 1968 oleh Niklaus Wirth. Tujuan pengembangannya adalah untuk kebutuhan pengajaran. Pada awalnya bahasa ini dikembangkan bukan dengan harapan adopsi pemakaian secara luas. Prinsipnya mereka mengembangkannya untuk alat pengajaran pemrograman yang baik seperti kemampuan debug dan perbaikan sistem dan dukungan kepada mikroprosesor komputer yang digunakan pada institusi pendidikan. Pascal dirancang dengan pendekatan yang sangat teratur (terstruktur), dia mengkombinasikan kemampuan yang terbaik dari bahasa-bahasa saat itu, COBOL, FORTRAN, dan ALGOL. Dalam pengerjaannya banyak perintah-perintah yang tidak teratur dan aneh dihilangkan, sehingga sangat menarik bagi pemakai (Bergin, 100-101). Kombinasi dari kemampuan input/output dan kemampuan matematika yang solid, membuatnya menjadi bahasa yang sukses besar. Pascal juga mengembangkan tipe data “pointer”, suatu fasilitas yang sangat bermanfaat pada bahasa yang mengimplementasikannya. Dia juga menambahkan perintah CASE, yang mana memperbolehkan perintah bercabang seperti suatu pohon pada suatu aturan: CASE expression OF possible-expression-value-1: statements to execute… possible-expression-value-2: statements to execute… END Pascal juga mengembangkan variabel dinamis, dimana variabel dapat dibuat ketika suatu program sedang berjalan, melalui perintah NEW dan DISPOSE. Tetapi Pascal tidak mengimplementasikan suatu array dinamis, atau kelompok dari variabel-variabel, yang mana sangat dibutuhkan, dan merupakan salah satu penyebab kekalahannya (Bergin, 101-102). Wirth kemudian membuat lanjutan dari Pascal, Modula-2, tetapi pada saat itu muncul C yang dengan cepat menjadi mengeser posisi Pascal. C dikembangkan pada tahun 1972 oleh Dennis Richie ketika sedang bekerja pada Bell Labs di New Jersey. Transisi pemakaian dari bahasa umum yang pertama ke bahasa umum sampai hari ini yaitu transisi antara Pascal dan C, C merupakan perkembangan dari B dan BCPL, tetapi agak menyerupai Pascal. Semua fasilitas di Pascal, termasuk perintah CASE tersedia di C. C menggunakan pointer secara luas dan dibangun untuk kecepatan dengan kelemahannya yaitu menjadi sulit untuk dibaca. Tetapi karena dia menghilangkan semua kelemahan yang terdapat di Pascal, sehingga dengan cepat mengambil alih posisi Pascal. Ritchie mengembangan C untuk sistem Unix yang baru pada saat yang bersamaan. Oleh karena ini, C dan Unix saling berkaitan. Unix memberikan C beberapa fasilitas besar seperti variabel dinamis, multitasking, penanganan interrupt, forking, dan strong low-level,input-output. Oleh karena itu, C sangat sering digunakan untuk pemrograman sistem operasi seperti Unix, Windows, MacOS, dan Linux. Pada akhir tahun 1970 dan awal 1980, suatu metode pemrograman yang baru telah dikembangkan. Ha tersebut dikenal sebagai Object Oriented Programming, atau OOP. Object merupakan suatu potongan dari data yang dapat dipaket dan dimanipulasi oleh programmer. Bjarne Stroustroup menyukai metode ini dan mengembangkan lanjutan dari C yang dikenal sebagai “C With Classes.” Kemampuan lanjutan ini dikembangkan menjadi bahasa C++ yang diluncurkan pada tahun 1983. C++ dirancang untuk mengorganisasikan kemampuan dasar dari C dengan OOP, dengan tetap mempertahankan kecepatan dari C dan dapat dijalankan pada komputer yang tipe berlainan. C++ sering kali digunakan dalam simulasi, seperti game. C++ menyediakan cara yang baik untuk memanipulasi ratusan instance dari manusia didalan elevator, atau pasukan yang diisi dengan tipe prajurit yang berbeda. Bahasa ini menjadi pilihan pada mata kuliah AP Computer Science sampai hari ini. Pada awal 1990′s, interaktif TV adalah teknologi masa depan. Sun Microsystems memutuskan bahwa interaktif TV membutuhkan suatu hal yang khusus, yaitu bahasa portable (bahasa yang dapat berjalan pada banyak jenis mesin yang berbeda). Bahasa ini dikenal sebagai Java. Pada tahun 1994, team proyek Java mengubah fokus mereka ke web, yang mana berubah menjadi sesuatu yang menjanjikan setelah interactive TV gagal. Pada tahun berikutnya, Netscape menyetujui pemakaian Java pada internet browser mereka, Navigator. Sampai titik ini, Java menjadi bahasa masa depan dan beberapa perusahaan mengumumkan aplikasi harus ditulis dalam Java. Java mempunyai tujuan yang besar dan merupakan bahasa yang baik menurut buku text, pada kenyataanya “bahasa tersebut tidak”. Dia memiliki masalah yang serius dalam optimasi, dengan arti program yang ditulis dengannya berjalan dengan lambat. Dan Sun telah membuat cacat penerimaan terhadap Java dengan pertikaian politis dengan Microsoft. Tetapi Java telah dinyatakan sebagai bahasa untuk instruksi masa depan dan benar-benar menerapkan object-oriented dan teknik tingkat tinggi seperti kode yang portable dan garbage collection. Visual Basic sering diajari sebagai bahasa pemrograman dasar yang mengacu pada bahasa BASIC yang dikembangkan pada tahun 1964 oleh John Kemeny dan Thomas Kurtz. BASIC adalah bahasa yang sangat terbatas dan dirancang untuk orang yang bukan computer science. Perintah-perintah dijalankan secara berurutan, tetapi kendali program dapat berubah berdasarkan IF..THEN, dan GOSUB yang mana menjalankan suatu blok kode dan kembali ketitik semula didalam alur program. Microsoft telah mengembangkan BASIC ke dalam produk Visual Basic (VB). Jantung dari VB adalah form, atau suatu window kosos dimana anda dapat drag dan drop komponen seperti menu, gambarm dan slider bars. Item-item ini dikenal sebagai “widgets.” Widget memiliki properti (seperti warna) dan events (seperti klik dan double klik) dan menjadi pusat dari pengembangan antarmuka dengan pemakai diberbagai bahasa program dewasa ini. VB merupakan program yang banyak digunakan untuk membuat interface sederhana ke produk Microsoft lainnya seperti Excel dan Access tanpa membaca banyak kode, dengannya dapat dimungkinkan untuk dibuat aplikasi yang lengkap. Perl telah sering digambarkan sebagai “duct tape of the Internet,” karena sering digunakan sebagai engine untuk interface web atau pada script untuk memodifikasi file konfigurasi. Dia memiliki fungsi text matching yang sangat baik sehingga membuatnya menjadi hal yang ideal untuk pekerjaan tersebut. Perl dikembangkan oleh Larry Wall pada 1987 karena fasilitas pada sed dan awk pada Unix (digunakan untuk manipulasi text) tidak mencukupi kebutuhannya. Tergantung kepada siapa anda bertanya, Perl adalah singkatan dari Practical Extraction and Reporting Language atau Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister. Bahasa pemrograman telah berkembangan dari masa kemasa dan tetap dikembangkan dimasa depan. Mereka dimulai dari suatu daftar langkap pengkabelan agar komputer menjalankan tugas tertentu. Langkah-langkah ini berkembang menjadi software dan memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik. Bahasa umum yang pertama menekankan pada kesederhanaan dan untuk satu tujuan saja, sedangkan bahasa dewasa ini terbagi atas bagaimana mereka diprogram, sehingga mereka dapat digunakan untuk semua tujuan. Dan mungkin bahasa yang akan datang lebih natural dengan penemuan pada quantum dan komputer-komputer biologis. Sumber : Indoprog ‘Algoritma & Pemrograman’ oleh Hendra, S.T.

Bahasa Pemrogaman

Bahasa pemrograman, atau sering diistilahkan juga dengan bahasa komputer, adalah teknik komando/instruksi standar untuk memerintah komputer. Bahasa pemrograman ini merupakan suatu himpunan dari aturan sintaks dan semantik yang dipakai untuk mendefinisikan program komputer. Bahasa ini memungkinkan seorang programmer dapat menentukan secara persis data mana yang akan diolah oleh komputer, bagaimana data ini akan disimpan/diteruskan, dan jenis langkah apa secara persis yang akan diambil dalam berbagai situasi.

Menurut tingkat kedekatannya dengan mesin komputer, bahasa pemrograman terdiri dari:

  1. Bahasa Mesin, yaitu memberikan perintah kepada komputer dengan memakai kode bahasa biner, contohnya 01100101100110
  2. Bahasa Tingkat Rendah, atau dikenal dengan istilah bahasa rakitan (bah.Inggris Assembly), yaitu memberikan perintah kepada komputer dengan memakai kode-kode singkat (kode mnemonic), contohnya MOV, SUB, CMP, JMP, JGE, JL, LOOP, dsb.
  3. Bahasa Tingkat Menengah, yaitu bahasa komputer yang memakai campuran instruksi dalam kata-kata bahasa manusia (lihat contoh Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi di bawah) dan instruksi yang bersifat simbolik, contohnya {, }, ?, <<, >>, &&, ||, dsb.
  4. Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi, yaitu bahasa komputer yang memakai instruksi berasal dari unsur kata-kata bahasa manusia, contohnya begin, end, if, for, while, and, or, dsb.

Sebagian besar bahasa pemrograman digolongkan sebagai Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi, hanya bahasa C yang digolongkan sebagai Bahasa Tingkat Menengah dan Assembly yang merupakan Bahasa Tingkat Rendah.

Senin, 11 April 2011

FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

A. Introduction

This paper will discuss why behavioral theories can account sufficiently well for the earliest utterances of the child, not for utterances at the sentence and discourse level. The writer uses a comparation between behavioral and nativist approaches as the tools for accounting it. This paper will dicuss outline issues in first language learning as a foundation to build an understanding of principles of second language learning. An understanding of the first language acquisition and a discussion of some of its key issues are particularly significant for an understanding of second language acquisition.

B. Dicussion

Almost every child succeeds in learning language. As a result, people often tend to take the process of language learning for granted. Language seems like a basic instinct, as simple as breathing. The fact language is not that simple. It is the most complex skill that a human being will ever master. As Brown (2007:26) stated:

“An extrem behaviorist position would claim that children come into the world with a tabula rasa, a clean slate bearing no preconceived nations about the world or abou language, and what these children are then shaped by their environment and slowly conditioned trough various schedules through various schedules of reinforcement. At the other constructivist extreme is the position that makes not only the cognitivist claim that children come into this world with very specific innate knowledge, predispositions, and biological timetables, but that children learn to function in a language chiefly through interaction and discourse.”

Nearly all people succeed in learning this complex skill demonstrates how well language has adapted to human nature. In a very real sense, language is the complete expression of what it means to be human.

1. Behavioral Approaches

Brown (2007:26) explain that Language is a important part of total human behavior, and behavioral psychologists analyzed it as such and sought to formulate consistent theories of first language acquisition. The behavioral approach focused on the immediately perceptible aspects of linguistic behavior-the publicly observable responses-and the relationships or associations between those responses and events in the world surrounding them.

Brown (2007) elaborate language as behavior adapted from B. F. Skinner'S classic, Verbal Behavior (1957). Skinner was commonly known for his experiments with animal behavior, but he also gained recognition for his contributions to education through teaching machines and programmed learning (Skinner, 1968). Skinner's theory of verbal behavior was an extension of his general theory of learning by operant conditioning. Operant conditioning refers to conditioning in which the an individu emits a response,or operant (a sentence or utterance), without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is maintained by reinforcement in its practice (for example, a positive verbal or nonverbal response from another person).

Brown (2007) also explain that Skinner's theories above gain some critics, not the least among them Noam Chomsky (1959), who penned a highly critical review of Verbal Behavior. Some years later, a reply to Chomsky's review in which he eloquently defended Skinner's points of view. And so the controversy raged on. Today virtually no one would agree that Skinner'S model of verbal behavior adequately accounts for the capacity to acquire language, for language development itself, for the abstract nature of language, or for a theory of meaning.

Linguists in the tradition of Noam Chomsky tend to think of language as having a universal core from which individual languages select out a particular configuration of features, parameters, and settings. As a result, they see language as an instinct that is driven by specifically human evolutionary adaptations. In their view, language resides in a unique mental organ that has been given as a "special gift" to the human species. This mental organ contains rules, constraints, and other structures that can be specified by linguistic analysis.

Psychologists and those linguists who reject the Chomskyan approach often view language learning from a very different perspective. To the psychologist, language acquisition is a window on the operation of the human mind. The patterns of language emerge not from a unique instinct but from the operation of general processes of evolution and cognition. For researchers who accept this emergentist approach, the goal of language acquisition studies is to understand how regularities in linguistic form emerge from the operation of low-level physical, neural, and social processes. Before considering the current state of the dialog between the view of language as a hard-wired instinct and the view of language as an emergent process, it will be useful to review a few basic facts about the shape of language acquisition and some of the methods that are used to study it.

Brown (2007: 27) conclude that A theory based on conditioning and reinforcement is hard-pressed to explain the fact that every sentence you speak or write-with a few trivial exceptions-is novel , never before uttered either by you or by anyone else! These novel utterances are nevertheless created by very young children as they literally "play" with language, and that same creativity continues on into adulthood and throughout one's life.

Human language involves both receptive and productive use. Receptive language use occurs during the comprehension or understanding of words and sentences. Productive language use involves idea generation and the articulation of words in speech. Receptive is synonims of Competence. The writer’s statement is straightened with this Brown’s argument (2007:35):

“Competence refers to one’s underlying knowledge system, event, or fact. It is the nonobservable ability to do something, to perform something. Performance is the overtly observable and concreate manifestation or realization of competance”

The methods used to study language development are mostly quite straightforward. The primary method involves simply recording and transcribing what children say. This method can be applied even from birth. Tape recordings become particularly interesting, however, when the child begins systematic babbling and the first productions of words. Using videotape, researchers can link up the child's use of verbal means with their use of gesture and nonlinguistic cries to draw attention to their desires and interests.

Methods for studying comprehension are a bit more complicated. During the first year, researchers can habituate the infant to some pattern of sounds and then suddenly change that pattern to see if the infant notices the difference. From about nine months onward, children can be shown pictures of toys along with their names, and then researchers can measure whether the children prefer these pictures to some unnamed distracter pictures. Later on, children can be asked to answer questions, repeat sentences, or make judgments about grammar.

Children language is can be observed by asking their parents to report about them. Parents can record the times when their children first use a given sound or word or first make some basic types of child errors. Each of these methods has different goals, and each also has unique possibilities and pitfalls associated with it. Having obtained a set of data from children or their parents, researchers next need to group these data into measures of particular types of language skills, such as vocabulary, sentences, concepts, or conversational abilities.

Having briefly covered the methods used to study language acquisition and the basic phases in development, it is now possible to return to this question: Is language development best characterized as the use of a "special gift" or as an emergent result of various cognitive, neural, physiological, and social pressures? There are good arguments in favor of each position.

The special gift position views language as an instinct. People are often overpowered by the "urge to speak." Young children must feel this urge when they interact with others and have not yet learned how to use words correctly. It is important to recognize, however, that crickets, birds, snakes, and many other species can be possessed by a similar urge to produce audible chirps, songs, and rattling. In themselves, these urges do not amount to a special gift for language learning. Better evidence for the special gift comes from the study of children who have been cut off from communication by cruel parents, ancient Pharaohs, or accidents of nature.

The special gift position holds that, if the special gift for language is not exercised by some early age, perhaps six or seven, it will be lost forever. None of the isolation experiments that have been conducted, however, can be viewed as providing good evidence for this claim. In many cases, the children are isolated because they are brain-injured. In other cases, the isolation itself produces brain injury. In a few cases, children as old as six to eight years of age have successfully acquired language even after isolation. Thus, the most that can be concluded from these experiments is that it is unlikely that the special gift expires before age eight.

The second form of evidence in favor of the notion of a special gift comes from the observation that children are able to learn some grammatical structures without apparent guidance from the input. The argumentation involved here is sometimes rather subtle. For example, Chomsky noted that children would never produce "Is the boy who next in line is tall?" as a question deriving from the sentence "The boy who is next in line is tall." Instead, they will inevitably produce the question as, "Is the boy who is next in line tall?" That children always know which of the forms of the verb is to move to the front of the sentence, even without ever having heard such a sentence from their parents, indicates to Chomsky that language must be a special gift.

Although the details of Chomsky's argument are controversial, his basic insight here seems solid. There are some aspects of language that seem so fundamental that humans hardly need to learn them. Nevertheless, the specific structures examined by linguistic theory involve only a small set of core grammatical features. When looking more generally at the full shape of the systems of lexicon, phonology, pragmatics, and discourse, much greater individual variation in terms of overall language proficiency appears.

To explain these differences, it is necessary to view language learning as emerging from multiple sources of support. One source of support is the universal concept all humans have about what language can be. A second source of support is input from parents and peers. This input is most effective when it directly elaborates or expands on things the child has already said. For example, if the child says "Mommy go store," the parent can expand the child's production by saying "Yes, Mommy is going to the store." From expansions of this type, children can learn a wide variety of grammatical and lexical patterns. A third source of support is the brain itself.

Through elaborate connections among auditory, vocal, relational, and memory areas, humans are able to store linguistic patterns and experiences for later processing. A fourth source of support are the generalizations that people produce when they systematize and extend language patterns. Recognizing that English verbs tend to produce their past tense by adding the suffix -ed, children can produce over-generalizations such as "goed" or "runned." Although these overgeneralizations are errors, they represent the productive use of linguistic creativity.

Individual children will vary markedly in the extent to which they can rely on these additional sources of support. Children of immigrant families will be forced to acquire the language of the new country not from their parents, but from others. Children with hearing impairments or the temporary impairments brought on by otitis media (ear infections) will have relatively less support for language learning from clear auditory input.

Because language is based on such a wide variety of alternative cognitive skills, children can often compensate for deficits in one area by emphasing their skills in another area. In this way, even when some of the normal supports are removed, children can still learn language. The basic uses of language are heavily over detrmined by this rich system of multiple supports. As a child moves away from the basic uses of languager into the more refined areas of literacy and specific genres, progress can slow. In these later periods, language is still supported by multiple sources, but each of the supports grows weaker, and progress toward the full competency required in the modern workplace is less inevitable.

2. Nativist Approach

The term nativist is derived from the fundamental assertion that language acquisition is innately determined, that we are born with a genetic capacity that predisposes us to a systematic perception of language around us, resulting in the construction of an internalized system of language.

Brown (2007:28) takes Chomsky’s statement (1965) as similarly claimed the existence of innate properties of language to explain the child's mastery of a native language in such a short time despite the highly abstract nature of the rules of language. This innate knowledge was embodied in a metaphorical "little black box" in the brain, a language acquisition device (LAD). Brown (2007:28) also quotes McNeill (1966) described the LAD as consisting of four innate linguistic properties:

1. The ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds in the

environment

2. The ability to organize linguistic data into various classes that can later be

refined

3. Knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that

other kinds are not

4. The ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developing linguistic

system so as to construct the simplest possible system out of the available

linguistic input

Furthermore, Brown (2007:31-32) explains: McNeill and other researchers in the Chomskyan tradition composed eloquent arguments for the appropriateness of the LAD proposition, especially in contrast to behavioral which was so limited in accounting for the creativity present in child language. The linguistical orientation innate predispositions fits pertectly with generative theories of language: children were presumed to use innate abilities to generate a potentially infinite number of utterances. Aspects of meaning, abstractness, and creativity were accounted for more adequately. Even though LAD was considered as not literally a cluster of brain cells which would be isolated and neurologically located, such inquiry on the cognitive side of the linguistic-psychological continuum stimulated a great deal of fruitful research.

One of the more practical contributions of nativist theories is evident if you look at the kinds of discoveries that have been made about how the system of child language works. Research has shown that the child's language, at any given point, is a legitimate system in its own right. The child's linguistic development is not a process of developing fewer and fewer "incorrect" structures-not a language in which earlier stages have more "mistakes" than later stages.

Nativist studies of child language acquisition were free to construct hypothetical grammars (that is, descriptions of linguistic systems) of child language, although such grammars were still solidly based on empirical data. These grammars were largely formal representations of the deep strucmre-the abstract rules underlying surlace output, the stmcture not overtly manifest in speech. Linguists began to examine child language from early one-, two-, and three,word forms of "telegraphese" (like "allgone milk " and "baby go boom" mentioned earlier) to the complex language of five- to ten-year-olds. Based on behavioral paradigms, they approached the data with few preconceived notions about what the child's language ought to be, and probed the data for internally consistent systems, in much the same way that a linguist describes a language in the "field."

Brown (2007) quotes that closely related to the PDP concept is a branch of psycholinguistic inquiry called connectionism (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986), in which neurons in the brain are said to form multiple connections: each of the 100 billion nerve cells in the brain may be linked to as many as 10,000 of its counterparts. In this approach, experience leads to learning by strengthening particular connections-sometimes at the expense of weakening others. For example, the first language acquisition of English regular past tense forms by children may proceed as a series of connections.

First, a child may confidently connect the form went with the verb go. Then, children will often perceive another connection, the regular oed suffix attached to a verb, and start using the word goed. Finally, with more complex connections, children will perceive goed as incorrect, and maintain both connections, the oed form connected to most verbs, and the went form as a special connection. "According to such accounts, there are no 'niles' of grammar. Instead, the systematicities of syntax emerge from the set of learned associations between language functions and base and past tense forms , with novel responses generated by 'online' generalizations from stored examples" (N. Ellis, 2003, p. 88).

Approaches from within the nativist framework-as well as the challenges just outlined above-have made several important contributions to our understanding of the first language acquisition process:

1. Freedom from the restrictions of the so-called "SCientific method" to explore the unseen, unobservable, underlying, abstract linguistic structures being developed in the child

2. The constnlction of a number of potential properties of Universal Grammar, through which we can better understand not just language acquisition but the nature of human languages in general

3. Systematic description of the child's linguistic repertoire as either nllegoverned, or operating out of parallel distributed processing capacities, or the result of experiential establishment of connections

3. First Language Acquisition Contribution Gain Second Language Acquisition

The previous way of learning second language is consentrate on reading comprehension so the writer experience practicing language trough translatiing. Based on Behavioral and Nativist approach, teacher can adopt the theory how children gain his first language acquisition on teaching the second language. Although there are still a gap between how the first and second language aquicitate e.g. the diffrence on grammar, culture, etc.

C. Conclusion

Much of Second Language Learning centers around issues of the nature of learnability. Whereas it is understood that first language acquisition is somewhat a mystery and relies mostly on innate universal principles of constraints and assumptions, second language learning seems to rely more on cognitive mechanism in order to fashion general problem solving learning strategies to cope with the material. This difference between First Language ‘Acquisition’ vs. Second Language ‘Learning’ has been recently articulated as a Fundamental Difference Hypothesis. It goes without saying that children naturally acquire their first language. Adults (post-critical period) do not naturally acquire their second language, as a number of fundamental differences appear in their rationale towards learning. Attempts to juxtapose what we do know about first language development, parameter settings, syntactic-categorical developmen, etc. and comparing and contrasting these

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